all traces of such material have been completely
Personnel will stand clear of a door or
opening when lighting an oil or gas forge, furnace, or
When a furnace, a forge, or other such
equipment is being extinguished or shut down, the fuel
supply must be shut off before the air is turned off.
Throwing gasoline, kerosene, or
flammable liquid in a refuse can is prohibited.
Placing wet, damp, or cold material, tools,
or other objects in molten metal is prohibited.
Cleaning with steel wool or steel brush
around a tank or other place where gasoline or kerosene
Figure 21-1. Right and wrong positions for lifting.
fumes may be present is prohibited.
Men will be placed according to size,
21-5. Handling Material
strength, and experience.
Walking backwards will be avoided
Sprains and strains are frequent among
personnel engaged in the maintenance of railway cars
These injuries could be avoided if personnel would
follow these basic rules when lifting objects:
handling material is prohibited.
Material will be piled and stowed in a safe
capabilities is prohibited.
and orderly manner.
Footing must be secure.
Tools and material not in use will be kept a
The strong arm and leg muscles
safe distance from the edge of platforms or tracks and
should exert the force of lifting. Figure 21-1 shows right
clear of aisles and runways.
and wrong methods of lifting a heavy object. In the
Personnel must be prepared to stop short of
persons or objects, especially when going through or
muscles of the spinal column and the sacroiliac exert
past doors, gangways, or other passageways.
the full force. The squatting position shown in figure 21-
1(2) requires the large muscles of the legs and arms to
Walking backwards while pulling trucks or
take the load. The man crouches and gets a good grip
wagons is prohibited.
He then straightens his legs slowly, and the box comes
Mounted wheels will be stopped by exerting
up with the least strain on the muscles of the back.
a pull on the axle from the rear. Stopping wheels by
When it is necessary for two or more
taking hold of the flange is prohibited
persons to handle heavy or bulky materials by hand, the
Leaving wheels, mounted or unmounted,
following precautions must be taken:
before they are stopped and secured is prohibited.
Slipping or tripping hazards will be
Rubbing the face, arms, or any other part of
removed when practicable.
the body with the hands while handling creosoted
One person will be designated to give
material will be avoided.
commands for all movements (lifting, walking, lowering,
or throwing). When practicable, this individual will be
21-6. Use of Handtools
placed at one end of the object being handled.
The person designated to give the
Employees must be sure that tools which
commands must fully inform those assisting him of what
they use in performing their duties are in proper
is to be done and what the words of command will be.
condition. The use of defective tools is prohibited.
Standing on or straddling a bar or lever
while using it is prohibited.
designated person are prohibited.
The following precautions must be taken
when using a wrench: