assume that the theater extends inland only from the port terminal to
a point halfway between terminals B and C. Phase I would be used
because the whole area is in the combat zone. However, figure 1.1
actually shows an expanded theater with the combat zone far enough
Phase I could be in effect for the 4th and 6th rail divisions only.
As you read on, you will see how phase II or a combination of phase
II and phase III operations could be used for the other divisions.
1.7. PHASE II
Phase II is a joint civilianmilitary railway operation with the
military retaining control. When combat forces move forward and
II operation is quickly begun. It has several important advantages.
Local economy is aided by restoring civilian railroaders to their
operation, some civilian trains may be allowed to operate. Although
military trains have priority, civilian traffic can be permitted
insofar as it does not interfere with military operations.
Look again at figure 1.1. Picture the theater as having
advanced far enough inland from the port terminal to take in
terminals D and E; suppose, too, that the rear limit of the combat
zone is located midway between terminals C and B. If this were true,
phase I operation would be used for the 3d and 5th and the 4th and
6th divisions and phase II for the 1st and 2d divisions. Phase II
also provides an efficient, accelerated transition from phase I to
phase III. In the next paragraph, you will see how phase III is
begun in the theater.
1.8. PHASE III
Phase III operations are conducted by civilians under military
supervision. Usually employed in the rear area of the communications
zone, phase III releases most of the military railroaders for duties
in forward areas. In this phase, more civilian employees are
restored to their jobs, helping the local economy, and additional
civilian trains may be operated because of increased rail transport
capabilities. Although phase III may be set up immediately upon
entry into a theater, this is highly improbable. However, when phase
III operations are in effect, the method of train movement best
understood by the civilians should be adopted. Careful planning is
necessary by officers of the transportation railway service when
putting military trains in civilian train schedules. Civilians
should be thoroughly instructed in military rail transportation