joint bars, and spikes are then installed if the old ones are not usable. Crowbars, track wrenches, spike pullers,
rail tongs, adzes, and spike hammers, such as those shown in figure 1.7, are used. While this work is under way,
rule 101, given in paragraph 1.10, is in effect: flagmen must protect against all trains.
Out-of-face rail replacement, the method used to renew long stretches of rail, is more common and more
involved than spot replacement. Although the actual replacement takes little time, a great deal of planning must
be done before the work is started. On both military and civilian lines, rail renewals are programmed in advance.
The reason for renewal may be battered ends, excessive head wear, or a change in section made necessary by a
change in traffic. Out-of-face rail replacement is discussed in the next two paragraphs: first the procedures
followed in the re-lay, and then the duties of the track maintenance men once the re-lay is finished.
On civilian lines, out-of-face renewal of rail
is usually done by gangs of from 50 to 150 men
equipped with power tools. Figures 1.13 through
1.18 show some of the power tools that both military
and civilian track maintenance men use to re-lay rail.
The gangs are organized and trained for this
particular job and handle all major rail replacements
of several divisions. Even in a theater where the
power tools usually associated with such operations
may not be available and hand tools must be used,
the procedures outlined here should be followed as
closely as possible, first on one rail and then on the
a. Dismantling and setting out the old rail.
The first group of men removes rail anchors, bolts,
joint bars, and
Figure 1.13. Gasoline-Powered
Used to Tighten or
Loosen Track Bolts.