spikes are driven into the solid wood of the tie rather than into the plugged holes. Paragraphs 1.19 through 1.25
explain tie renewal. Lining and gaging the track always follow out-of-face rail replacement, although both line
and gage must be checked frequently to allow trains to pass safely. Paragraphs 1.26 and 1.27 explain lining and
The procedure for replacing ties begins with the track foreman's periodic inspection of the ties.
Following that comes the actual replacement of the bad ties with good ones. Sometimes traffic must be restricted
when the tie-renewal procedure is under way. Spiking the new ties, disposing of the old ones, and lining the new
ties with the old are the final steps in the process.
The track foreman makes periodic inspections to find out which ties need to be replaced and puts a spot of
white lead paint on the web of the rail above the tie to be renewed. The track supervisor spot checks his
selections before they are removed, to be sure that he is not discarding good ties. It is not always possible to
determine the serviceability of the ties while in the track; therefore, they should be inspected again after removal.
By taking out all doubtful ties, the track supervisor makes sure that all bad ones have been removed, but by
checking them carefully, he may find some of them still usable.
After the bad ties have been marked and new ones distributed along the track, a section gang removes the
spikes with claw bars, loosens the ballast, and raises the track slightly. The old ties are then pulled out with tie
tongs. Clawbars and tie tongs are illustrated in figure 1.7. New ties are slid into place and respiked and the
REMOVING TRACK FROM SERVICE
Out-of-face work or the removal of one or more ties may make it necessary to restrict traffic. Track must
be thought of as out of service and trains allowed to proceed only at greatly reduced speed when any one of the
following conditions exists: (1) two or more adjoining ties are removed; (2) in extremely hot weather, each tie
unspiked or removed is not flanked on both sides by at least four