variations in natural atmospheric conditions. This
The following are terms
process involves control of moisture content,
maintenance of railway cars.
temperature, purity, and circulation.
A-end of car. The end opposite to that on which the
Air gage (airbrake). A gage to register the pressure of
brake shaft is located, this end being called the B-
air in reservoirs, brake pipe, or brake cylinders,
end. If there are two brake shafts, the ends are
similar to an ordinary steam pressure gage. The air
designated by stenciling the letters A and B,
gage is made either with a single pointer or with two
respectively, on both sides near the ends.
pointers (duplex gage) to indicate on one dial both
the reservoir pressure and the brake pipe pressure.
Airbrake. In its widest sense, the term airbrake may
include any system in which the mechanism is
Angle cock. A special type of valve located at both
actuated by the manipulation of air pressures
ends of the brake pipe on passenger and freight
exerted on different parts of the apparatus A more
cars. The free opening is threaded to receive the air
restricted meaning is general in the United States,
connecting hose nipple.
covering only brakes which employ air under
pressures above atmospheric.
Articulated car. A car consisting of two or more full-size
units free to swivel, the portions being carried on a
AB brake equipment. The type of brake equipment
common-center truck. Automatic airbrake. An
made standard for new freight cars built after 1
airbrake system in which the brake will be applied
September 1933 and for rebuilt cars after 1 August
automatically in case of an accident which permits
1937. AB brake equipment was made compulsory
air to escape from the system.
in interchange after 1 January 1945 by the
Association of American Railroads (AAR).
Automobile car. A boxcar for carrying automobiles. It
replaced type K brakes in CONUS.
has exceptionally large side doors (usually double)
at least 10 feet wide and sometimes has end doors.
Airbrake hose. Laminated rubber and canvas tubing
Often fitted with automobile racks. Automobile-
attached to a nipple that screws into the angle cock
parts car. A boxcar specially fitted for transportation
at the end of the brake pipe The other end of the
of automobile parts.
hose is fitted with a coupling which engages with a
similar coupling on the adjoining car. The complete
A reservoir for storage of
arrangement forms a flexible air connection
compressed air to operate the brakes of each
between the brake pipes of the two cars.
individual car. This reservoir is supplied from the
main reservoir on the engine through the brake pipe.
Airbrake-hose coupling. A special type of standardized
fitting which is attached to one end of an airbrake
Axle. The cylindrical steel shaft on which the car wheels
hose to provide means for quick and secure
are mounted. The axle not only holds the wheels to
connection and disconnection of the hoses by which
gage, but also transmits the load from the journal
the airbrake pipe and signal pipe are carried from
boxes to the wheels Axle generator. A special type
car to car.
of electrical generator designed for drive from the
car axle by belt and pulleys or direct drive.
Airbrake schedule. A tabular index of times of protected
operations and recurring events pertaining to the
B-end of car (See also Designations). The end of the
maintenance and periodical testing of airbrake
car on which the brake shaft is located, or the end
toward which the brake-cylinder piston travels.
Air conditioning. In its broadest sense, the simultaneous
adjustment of atmospheric conditions, chemical as
well as physical, within an enclosed space to suit the
purpose for which that space is used, regardless of