3-4. Ensuring the Cargo Reception Capability of Terminals
A terminal is any facility, regardless of size or complexity, at which cargo or
personnel are loaded, unloaded, and handled in-transit between elements of any of
the various modes of transportation. Terminals are established at the origin and
destination for the cargo being carried and at the intermodal transfer points. The
overall effectiveness of a consignee depends, in part, on the efficiency of the
supporting terminal facilities. As connecting links in the transport net terminals
are natural bottlenecks.
The Army classifies terminal operations using two broad categories--
Water terminals are conducted at established ports, beach sites, or unimproved
Inland terminals are located inland from the waters edge. They include
facilities such as air and truck terminals, trailer transfer points (TTPs),
railyards, and inland water terminals. These terminals provide for the
expeditious transshipment of cargo and personnel.
Fixed facility port terminals are the preferred terminal for water transport because
they normally have a higher cargo throughput capability. These terminals are
existing and developed shoreside installations of varying size. They may contain
deep water complexes and come equipped with several wharves, anchorage areas,
shore-based cranes, dry-docking facilities, cargo sheds, sorting and storage areas,
rail sidings, and so on. From these terminals, cargo is normally stored to await
terminal clearance or loaded directly onto surface transport for onward
An unimproved water terminal is a site not specifically designed for cargo
discharge. These terminals are normally established when fixed-port water
terminals are unavailable or to increase throughput to meet increased
requirements. These are characteristics of unimproved water terminals:
Insufficient water depth.
Lack of MHE.
Insufficient berthing space to accommodate deep-draft cargo vessels.
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