crossovers, bridges, tunnels, main-line curves, and other curves exceeding 3 degrees.
3.21. SPIKES AND TIE PLUGS
Track spikes fasten T-rails to ties, hold track in
gage and line, prevent rail from overturning, and hold tie
plates in place. The ordinary spike used in the United
States has a square shank and a hook head. It is used to
fasten rail either directly to the tie or to the tie with an
intervening tie plate. Figure 3.9 shows the details of a
cut, or hook head, track spike. The spike is driven with
the chisel point parallel to the direction of the track and
with the head overlapping the rail flange. On tangent
track, one spike on each side of each rail on each tie is
sufficient (fig. 3.10). On curved track, additional spikes
are required. Figure 3.11 shows you how a driven spike
appears when a tie plate is in place.
Spikes may be driven by hand, by using a spike
maul, or with an automatic spiking machine. When
manually driven, care should be taken that the rail base
is not struck accidentally. Such a blow may eventually
cause rail failure.
Figure 3.9. Details of Cut
Some railways in Europe and elsewhere use
screw spikes more extensively than hook head spikes.
One is shown in figure 3.12. The holding power of a
screw spike is nearly three times that of a cut or hook
head spike. On the other hand, they are driven much
more slowly, even with
Figure 3.10. Correct Method of
Figure 3.11. Using Spikes With Tie Plates.