f. Handholds. Enclosed cars are usually equipped with four kinds of handholds: side, roof, horizontal end,
and vertical end.
(1) Side handholds are located near each end on both sides of the car. They are not less than 24 nor
more than 30 inches above the centerline of the coupler except where the tread of the ladder is the handhold.
(2) Roof handholds are located above each ladder. They are parallel to the treads of the ladder and are
not less than 8 inches nor more than 15 inches from the edge of the roof except on refrigerator cars. These cars
may have hatches in the roofs that would prevent the roof handholds from being so positioned. The handholds
may be closer to the edge of the roof to avoid interfering with the ice hatches. Handholds positioned at right
angles to the treads may be substituted for two or more parallel handholds.
(3) Horizontal end handholds are required on the ends of all cars. Four handholds are located on each
end except when the tread of the ladder is considered an end handhold. The outer end of these handholds must
not be more than 8 inches from the side of the car.
(4) Vertical end handholds are required on cars with a full-width end platform, as found on a caboose.
One is placed on each end of the car opposite the ladder.
7.4. FLAT CAR
Each flatcar must have a handbrake located so that it can be safely operated while the car is in motion.
The brake shaft is located on the end of the car to the left of center or on the side of the car not more than 36
inches from the right hand end.
All flatcars must have four end handholds. One is located near each side on each end of the car on the
face of the end sill. The outer end of the handhold must not be more than 16 inches from the side of the car.
7.5. TANK CAR WITH SIDE PLATFORM
Many of the same safety appliances found on enclosed cars and and flatcars are also found on tank cars.
Some additional attachments, however, are required on tank cars and an explanation of them follows. Figure
7.2 illustrates the location of safety appliances on a typical tank car.