nor more than 22 inches from the centerline. The wheel may be flat or dished; not less than 15 inches in
diameter, preferably 16 inches; and made of wrought iron or steel.
A brake step is provided for trainmen to stand upon while operating the handbrake. It must not
be less than 28 inches long; its outside edge must not be less than 8 inches from the face of the car; and it must
be fastened to the body of the car with two metal braces either bolted or riveted with not less than 1/2-inch bolts
b. Uncoupling levers. To operate the coupler without stepping between the cars, uncoupling levers are
provided, of either a single or double design. The single lever design is not common; it is placed on the left side
on the end of the car. The handles of these levers are not more than 12 inches, preferably 9 inches, from the
side of the car. They are not less than 18 inches from the top of the rails when the coupler is unlocked.
c. Running boards. A running board is a longitudinal strip at least 18 inches wide centered on the roof of
an enclosed car that extends the entire length of the car. To reach the running board, trainmen use transverse,
right-angle extensions that lead from the side ladders to the running board. The extensions must be at least 24
inches wide; these extensions may not be found on refrigerator cars because they interfere with hatches in the
tops of the cars through which ice is passed to the refrigerating bunkers.
d. Ladders. Four ladders are required on enclosed cars; one is on each side, not more than 8 inches from
the A end of the car, and one on each end not more than 8 inches from the left side of the car. The maximum
distance between the treads or rungs on ladders is 19 inches. The top tread or rung must not be less than 12
inches nor more than 18 inches from the roof of the car at the eaves.
e. Sill steps. Four sill steps, made of wrought iron or steel, are placed on each car with one located on each
side near each end. The distance from the end of the car to the center of the step's tread must not be more than
18 inches. The tread must be at least 1/2 inch thick, 1 1/2 inches wide, and 10 inches from side to side. There
must be at least an 8-inch clearance between the tread and the car. When the clearance is in excess of 21 inches,
an additional tread is needed. The sill steps are securely fastened with 1/2-inch bolts with outside nuts riveted
over, or they are riveted with not less than 1/2-inch rivets.