Before operations start, necessary bilingual
documents should be prepared using both English and the local
Look at figure 1.1 again. Here is a military railroad net in an
The theater has been developed with phase I and
phase II as explained in paragraphs 1.6 and 1.7; now phase III
operation for part of the theater becomes possible.
civilian railroaders have been oriented in military procedures and
the necessary materials and documents have been prepared, phase III
can be used. The 1st and 2d divisions, located entirely within the
forward than the 1st and 2d divisions, could use phase II. Because
the 4th and 6th rail divisions are partly within the communications
zone and partly within the combat zone, phase I would undoubtedly be
used for them to have strict military control. Here is an example,
then, of a situation that permits the maximum use of civilian
railroaders in the rear areas and releases military men for duty in
the forward areas. Keep in mind that both phase II and phase III may
be suspended and replaced by phase I at any time should military
necessity require it.
A great deal of planning is required before the transportation
railway service can begin operations in a theater.
The first big
task is to find out what rail lines exist and then to choose those
most valuable for supporting the military operation. Selections are
made on the basis of our forces' probable objective and planned lines
of advance and the enemy's strength and location.
Although in all probability it will be necessary to use any
existing rail lines, if there is a choice, those with the most
favorable technical characteristics are selected.
terminals, and shop facilities are required so that main lines can be
kept open; rail cars can be unloaded, loaded, and then made up into a
train and readied for departure; and rail equipment can receive the
heavy repair and maintenance it needs. Double track allows trains to
operate in two directions; if partly damaged, at least one track can
be repaired for use as a main line with adequate passing tracks.
Since roadbed, ballast, and weight of track determine the weight and
speed of trains, a line with seasoned roadbed, good ballast, and
heavy rail is selected. Rail lines with slight grades and few curves
require less motive power, allow for higher train speeds, and are not
as hard on equipment as those with steep grades and sharp or