b. Rule S-87 provides: "An inferior train must keep out of the way of
opposing superior trains and, failing to clear the main track by the time
required by the rules, must be protected as prescribed by rule 99.
trains must clear the time of opposing regular trains not less than 5
minutes, unless otherwise provided, and will be governed by train orders
with respect to opposing extra trains "
c. Rules 86 and S-87 mean that extra trains must operate with respect
to train orders, the timetable, and the operating rules. They may proceed
until the crew notes from the timetable that a superior train is getting
close; then they must enter a siding or a yard to clear the train.
Similarly, when operating against--opposing--a superior train, the crew
knows from the timetable when to take siding to clear the opposing train.
However, if a train has certain types of orders, they may conflict with
rules 86 and S-87. When this occurs, the orders automatically supersede the
rules. Also, train orders may confer superiority to a westbound train and
restrict an eastbound one of equal class. This conflicts with superiority
of direction established by the timetable and, again, the orders supersede
the timetable. They may also grant a second-class train right over a first-
class one; they have then superseded the established class of trains as set
forth by the timetable.
In brief, train orders may supersede any normal
method of regulating train movement, or they may temporarily set aside
certain operating rules and the timetable. Therefore, train orders are the
last word of authority and remain in effect until fulfilled, superseded, or
The crew's actions can fulfill the orders, but nothing can
supersede or annul them except other orders from the dispatcher.
The method of dispatching varies according to the type of rail
operations. The four basic types are: single track, double track, multiple
track, and Centralized Traffic Control (CTC) which applies chiefly to single
track. Since CTC and multiple track are refinements rarely encountered in
foreign theaters, this text deals principally with single- and double-track
However, to ignore CTC and multiple-track operations entirely
would restrict a reader's understanding of the subject as a whole.
Therefore, they are discussed but not stressed as much as the other
The remaining paragraphs of chapter 1 discuss the
various methods, but before that discussion begins, the method used in a
theater of operations is described.