Like surfacing and re-laying rail, tie renewal is done by the spot or the out-of-face method. Spot
replacement refers to single replacements, while out-of-face applies to the large numbers of tie replacements
required when a rundown line must be reconditioned to accommodate a heavy increase in traffic. Ties are
inspected before they are removed and the bad ones marked. A spot check is made before they are removed to
insure that useful ties are not being discarded. Ties should be inspected again after removal because it is not
always possible to determine their serviceability while they are in the track. When new ties are distributed along
the track, the old ties are removed and the new ones slid into place and spiked, and the ballast tamped. The track
is then alined and its gage checked and corrected if necessary.
Now that the elements of track rehabilitation have been explained, you are ready to begin chapter 2 in
which turnouts and special switches are discussed.