top center of the journalnot slipped to one side. The ends of the bearing
and wedge should show no wear; worn ends show improper bearing and wedge
d. Water and lubrication. The journal surface should be lubricated.
Dryness of the journal end signifies inadequate lubrication which may have
resuited from water in the packing. The journal box should be checked
carefully for water. In cold weather, water may freeze around the threads
of the packing and retard the flow of lubricant to the journal. In warm
weather, water may settle to the bottom rear of the journal box, forcing the
lighter oil up and out through the dust guard well. Water problems are
generally caused by loose or poorly fitting lids that admit snow or water.
e. Journal box. The journal box should not be broken or cracked, and
its lid should close securely to prevent dust, dirt, water, and other
foreign matter from entering the box. No loose threads or particles of
waste should be hanging outside the box lid.
3.12. WHEEL DEFECTS
The two general classes of railway wheels used on commercial and
military railroads in the United States are made of either wrought or cast
steel. Wheels are usually classified according to the manufacturing process
used in making them. Treads and flanges are specially treated in the
manufacturing process to increase their hardness and durability. Wheels are
also classified as to whether they are multiple, two, or one wear.
The importance of inspecting for wheel defects must be stressed. Any
serious wheel defect causes undue wear on rails and rail equipment parts and
can cause the car and train to derail. The high cost of track repair, the
destruction of expensive rail equipment, and the danger to human life make
the close and frequent inspection of wheels imperative. Major wheel defects
are discussed in the subparagraphs following.
a. Thin flange. When checking wheels, inspectors use a special wheel
gage. A thin flange is evident if the flange fits into a predesigned cut in
the wheel gage. For example, when the flange fits into the 1inch cut in
the gage, the wheel should be changed to another position on the car to
decrease flange wear. However, when the flange fits into the 15/16inch
slot on the gage, the condemning limit has been reached and the wheel must
be replaced. Figure 3.9 demonstrates the use of the wheel gage to detect