other track. Drive a surveyor's tack into the tie the distance away from the mark that the track is to be thrown.
To mark the throws on a single track, drive wooden line stakes at each station through the ballast and into
the subgrade, level with the rail base. Drive them between the rails at points on a line a preset distance from the
track after throwing. Show the exact point of reference by nailing a tack in the head of the stake.
Men equipped with lining bars or an operator on a track liner throws the track--the entire track as a unit
at each station needing alteration. Complete the job by re-dressing the ballast, widening the ballast section under
an extremely long throw, and restoring proper superelevation.
The next chapter brings three more elements in track construction and maintenance--highway grade
crossings, guard rails, and the effects of weather.