replacing ties until after the new rail is installed. This eliminates redriving spikes in the new ties, thereby giving
them longer life.
c. Step three. If a subdivision has been maintained in good condition, rail renewals may be possible
during the winter if it is not too severe in the particular area. Then new ties can be placed in the early spring
without requiring a second spiking within a few weeks of the first.
d. Step four. Whenever track is disturbed by rail re-lay, grouting, or replacing joint bars, it should be
surfaced and lined immediately afterward. But rail-end welding and grinding should never be done until after the
track is surfaced and lined, or the good effects of the work are lost.
A good program of track maintenance is worthless unless followed steadily. Of course, interruptions and
emergencies make it difficult to follow the program, but these should not be allowed to upset the broad aims of
the plan. As an aid in recording progress, many supervisors keep track charts and color-code them to show what
work is planned, when it is scheduled for completion, and the status of weekly or monthly progress. Another
scheme for planning and keeping a check on progress is shown in figure 5.9. This chart, however, has the
weakness of not showing the locations where work is to be done or is in progress. It is shown to give an example
of the sequence of work as well as a means of checking progress. This chart is not intended as a final guide for
planning work. Every railroad and every subdivision have different characteristics of weather and traffic which
affect such planning.
Both military and civilian railway systems are divided geographically into divisions. Each division of a
civilian railroad has a superintendent who has the authority and responsibility for the operation and maintenance
of his division. One of the members of the superintendent's staff is the division engineer, who is responsible for
all maintenance of way on his particular division. He delegates some of his duties to subdivision supervisors.
The subdivisions are usually divided into sections with a section foreman responsible for the work done on each.
On a military rail division, the maintenance-of-way superintendent is the company commander of the