good, fully spiked ties with the ballast tamped; or (3) the ballast is untamped and the following number of
adjoining ties on each side of the tie removed are not fully spiked and in good condition:
Two ties on tangent track,
Three ties on curves up to 5 degrees,
Four ties on curves over 5 degrees.
Although the exact length of ties is specified when ordered, the lengths frequently vary slightly. When
placed on the track,. one tie end is lined flush with the next one to present a uniform appearance. Replacement
ties are lined with those already in place. Which tie ends should be uniform depends upon the number of main
tracks. On single track, line tie ends on the line rail, that is, on the east side when the track runs north and south;
on the north side when the track runs east and west. On double track, line the ends on the outside of the tracks.
When there are three or more tracks, line the ends on the outside of the tracks; line the ends on the line rail side
of the inside tracks.
DISPOSING OF OLD TIES
Old ties may be used for shoring or cribbing material or for building a retaining wall. They are often
used to shore a track while a French drain is under construction. French drains are discussed in more detail in
Reference Text 670, paragraph 2.15c. If the old ties cannot be used for these purposes, they are saved for
firewood or burned at the removal site.
When the new ties are installed, they must be properly spiked. Usually, tangent track is spiked with four
spikes per tie, that is, one on either side of each rail in the pattern shown in figure 1.21. The two spikes must be
driven not closer than 2 inches from either face of the tie. Six spikes are used on curves, two inside each rail and
one outside. Spikes must be driven vertically and square.
ALINING TANGENT TRACK
The next step after out-of-face surfacing or rail renewal is to aline the track. It may be alined at other
times as necessary to provide safe and smooth passage for trains. In proper alinement, tangent track is perfectly
straight, that is, the rails run parallel to