world. The chapter also discusses other freight cars, passenger and
special equipment, and a recently developed rail car which may prove
TYPES OF ROLLING STOCK
house cars, open-top cars, flatcars, and tank cars. All railway cars
except flatcars have six general components: trucks, brake gear,
draft gear, couplers, underframe, and superstructure. Since flatcars
have no superstructure, they have only five general components. The
following subparagraphs discuss each of the four types of cars in the
a. House cars have an enclosed superstructure with sides,
ends, and roof and usually doors, vents, ladders, and rooftop running
Boxcars, refrigerator cars, and cabooses are examples.
Since boxcars and refrigerator cars are discussed in paragraphs 2.13
and 2.19, only the caboose is described here.
A caboose is a car
attached to the rear of a freight train.
It accommodates the
conductor and flagman and serves as their office and quarters while
in transit. The caboose also carries supplies, tools, and car parts
that might be required en route.
b. Open-top cars, such as gondolas, ballast cars, and hoppers,
normally have sides and ends.
However, both types of hopper cars,
covered and open-top, are included in the open-top car category. The
following subparagraphs describe the two types of hoppers and the
ballast car. The gondola car is discussed in paragraph 2.12.
(1) Covered hoppers are permanently enclosed, weather-tight
cars with fixed sides, ends, and roofs. Openings with weather-tight
covers or doors are provided in the roof or sides through which the
cars are loaded.
For unloading, the cars may have openings in the
bottom with tight-fitting covers, doors, ports, or valves, or roof
and side openings through which freight may be discharged.
hoppers may be partitioned into compartments.
(2) Open-top hoppers are similar to gondolas except that
they have higher sides and ends, and generally interiors with self-
For example, a sloping construction of the car
bottom and compartments that end at openings equipped with doors
provide for discharge of the car's contents.
Open-top hopper cars
are of many types that vary according to the size and class of
commodities they carry.
Some have twin hopper pockets while others
have quadruple ones; each has a door for discharging lading.