however, only the symbols are used and must be known by anyone attempting to trace out a locomotive

circuit.

1.21.

WORK AND POWER

Work and power are often confused. Work, the result of an applied force which results in

motion, is the product of force times the distance along which it moves, or Work = Force x Distance.

Power, the rate of doing work, has the element of time that work does not; power equals work divided by

time, or

. Work is expressed as foot-pounds while power is expressed as foot-pounds

per second. Work done on a body results in an increase in potential energy, kinetic energy, or heat of

friction. In the illustration shown in figure 1.13, energy is contained in the bucket of water. Potential

energy is that possessed because of the water's position. Since the bucket of water is 10 feet high and

there are 20 pounds of water, the potential energy is 20 x 10 = 200 foot-pounds. If the water runs down

the pipe toward the pump it becomes kinetic energy, that is, energy in motion. If the 20 pounds had

moved in a horizontal line for 10 feet, no more than 200 foot-pounds of work could have been done.

Since the potential energy of the water has not changed, the work has all gone into the heat of friction.

1.22.

MEASURING CURRENT

An ammeter, used to measure the quantity of current flowing in a circuit, is connected either in

the main power generating circuit or in one of the traction motor circuits. If the latter prevails, other

traction motor circuits carry an equal amount of current. Each ammeter is equipped with a shunt--a

bypass carrying most of the current--and the total current load passes through either the ammeter or its

shunt. The shunt is designed to work with the ammeter so that there is a relation between the current

flowing through it and the current flowing through the coil of the ammeter. A pointer is attached to a

coil which turns against a spring so that deflection is proportional to the current. The dial over which the

pointer swings can be marked to read amperes or quantity of current flowing.

In addition to having figures showing the current in amperes, the ammeter may be marked in

minutes, indicating the maximum time the locomotive may be operated at a certain load.