Figure 2.21. New and Condemning Limits for Wrought-Steel Wheels.
You can easily see that a small defect occurring on the tread or flange of a new wheel could be turned and the
original contour of the tread and flange restored without reaching any of the several condemning limits.
However, at any time that any limit is reached whether it results from defects or from wear, the wheel must be
removed from service. Again, there are limits for passenger service and limits for freight service. It is quite
possible, in fact recommended, that any wheel reaching the passenger-service limit but not reaching the freight-
service limit be removed from passenger and placed in freight service until some limit in it is reached.
The important points in this section are the differences between one-wear and multiple-wear wheels.
When defects are serious enough or when wear limits have been reached on one-wear wheels, they are
discarded; however, multiple-wear wheels may be reclaimed by turning them on lathes until the minimum wear
limits are reached or defects force their removal from the service. The multiple-wear wheels have two wear
limits: one for passenger service and another for freight service. More wear is allowed on wheels used in freight
service. A wheel may be removed from passenger service and used in freight service until the limits of wear
have been reached for the latter service. To be able to determine when a wheel should be removed from service
or reclaimed, you must know how to recognize the many defects and be able to measure the extent of the defects
and the amount of wear through proper application of the right gages.
Some wheel defects result from faulty manufacturing, such as seams, cracked or broken plates, burnt rim
or flange, and spread