improvement is undertaken only when necessary to meet minimum
requirements for safe operation.
b. Water and fuel stations. Any suitable facilities are used for
fuel and water stations. However, where no water and oil stations
exist, they may be improvised by placing filled rail tank cars at
strategic points along the line. Here are two of the many ways to
improvise coal stations needed when steam locomotives are in use.
Loaded coal cars may be placed on a ramp and the coal emptied into
the locomotive tenders; or hopper cars containing coal may be placed
on a siding and coal shoveled by hand into the tenders, or unloaded
through openings in cars equipped with doors to discharge lading.
c. Signal systems. On newly constructed or rehabilitated lines,
signals of the simplest kind are installed. Automatic block signals
and interlocking switches are used and maintained only when already
in existence; if used, however, they require tight security since
they are highly vulnerable to sabotage.
d. Telephone and telegraph lines. The most dependable and
expedient method of dispatching trains is by telephone. Any existing
telegraph lines are easily converted for telephone operations. When
sidings are equipped with telephone boxes, train crews can aid the
train dispatcher in moving trains in emergencies.
e. Enginehouses. Roundhouses and turntables are easily
recognizable from the air. In an area subject to enemy aerial
bombardment, such enginehouse facilities may have to be avoided. If
roundhouses and turntables do exist, all precautions should be taken
to insure that locomotives will not become useless if the facilities
are disabled. Newly constructed enginehouses should be simple frame
structures without complicated windows and doors.
Wyes like the one sketched are needed to change the direction
of engines. With a pencil, trace the route that an engine or an
entire train takes as it leaves the main line through switch A,
continues down the wye until it clears switch C, and then backs past
switches C and B. Now it is on the main line again and ready to run
in the opposite direction.
1.5. PHASES OF OPERATION
As theater territorial limits expand, the problem of supplying
skilled people for rail operations becomes acute. To cope with this
problem, the TRS sets up rail operations in three phases to allow
employment of skilled civilians in rear areas and to release military