be dangerous. Other incidents for which no specific rule is readily
applicable are presumed to be covered by the broad scope of rule 108,
quoted in paragraph 4.1. The following subparagraphs discuss some of
the ways in which accidents and injuries can be avoided.
a. Precautions. Yard personnel can reduce the chances of
personal injury to themselves and others in numerous ways. Some of
the more important ones are as follows.
Never crawl under cars unless your duties require at, and then
only when the track has blueflag protection, as outlined in
paragraph 4.4. Do not cross between moving or standing cars. Use
the ladder whenever possible.
When necessary to board a moving draft of cars, board the
forward end of a car. The forward end is the end in the direction
the draft is moving. Never board a moving engine by stepping up on
the front footboard from ahead. Catch the rear end as the engine
passes. Do not stand on the front footboard of an engine traveling
in a forward direction.
If you must ride a draft of cars for a considerable distance and
have a choice of types, climb inside an empty gondola, or board a
flatcar, or a tank car with a fulllength running board. When
necessary to ride the top of a car to signal the engineer, station
yourself in the center of the car, never at the front or rear end.
Be prepared for and brace yourself against sudden starts and stops.
When riding the top of a car, never ride with your hands in your
pocketsit is too easy to be thrown off balance. Do not sit on
rough or splintery running boards. Do not ride between cars,
particularly on an end sill of a car loaded with pipe, steel
shafting, logs, or similar freight subject to shifting.
Maintain a constant lookout for opentop cars loaded high with
coal, coke, slag, limestone, or other bulk commodities that may be
dislodged and fall when the car is bumped. If you see anything that
you think might lead to danger, stop the engineer first and
investigate later. When signaling an engineer, make certain that no
engine but your own can see the signal. Do not step on rails when
crossing tracks and never walk along the top of a rail. Wet steel is
slippery and dangerous.
Never forget, particularly after dark, in which direction your
engine is facing. A signal to proceed or to back up has different
meanings based on whether the engine is facing you or headed away
from you. Some railroadsparticularly in foreign