instructions state what the signals mean and how they are to be used;
this contributes to the TRS capability of operating any railroad
anywhere in the world.
e. Interchange operations. At the beginning and end of a rail
division, cars must be interchanged with other divisions. The
special instructions give specific information governing interchange
f. Close clearances. An important limitation on any road is the
amount of clearance between rail equipment and such structures as
loading platforms, bridge rigging, and tunnel walls and ceilings.
Not only are these clearance instructions important for safety, but
they determine the type of equipment that can be used and how the
equipment is loaded.
g. Special safety instructions. The operating rules are
specially designed and worded to insure safety of both personnel and
equipment. However, a particular rail division may have hazards not
normally present in railroading, and instructions to insure the
safety of operations must be issued. These are also shown in the
h. Speed table. The speed table gives traveling time in minutes
and seconds per kilometer, in terms of kilometers per hour. For
example, a train moving at 25 kilometers per hour takes 2 minutes and
24 seconds to travel 1 kilometer. The speed table is for information
only and does not authorize exceeding the speed restrictions
discussed in the preceding subparagraph a.
2.14. RAILWAY SIGNALS
Train movements cannot be made safely without a thorough
knowledge and understanding of adequate railway signal systems.
Since automatic block signals are highly vulnerable to continued
damage and sabotage in a theater of operations, this discussion is
limited to the basic color fixed signals that could possibly be used
in a stabilized rear area operation.
The next two main paragraphs discuss some of the more important
signals that affect train movements. First, the classification
signals and markers are explained. Even though markers are not
signals as such, they do convey information about the train to
operating personnel. Then a discussion of fixed signals is presented
explaining their positions and colors, and also certain devices used
by operating personnel to signal other personnel.