beneath the car body without raising the car. Improved
The truck shop should be conveniently
working conditions where there is a pit will tend to
located near the wheel and axle shop, the blacksmith
reduce costs and expedite completion of the repairs.
shop, and the machine shop, and as near the point
where the car is unwheeled as conditions will permit.
Cars should be carefully inspected before
The truck shop may be laid out with tracks upon which
the trucks are repaired, or the trucks may rest directly
they enter the shop to determine what work is
upon the floor. The former method is more conductive
necessary, and again after the work has been
to orderly operations
completed. The inspection facilities should include an
inspection pit with test equipment for testing airbrakes,
heating, lighting, water supply, and plumbing.
Section IV. WHEEL AND AXLE SHOP
18-18. Wheel and Limited Defects
Wheel shop operations should be placed on an efficient
basis by the use of the best available machinery and
Wheels and axles are removed from service
conveying devices. It is essential that careful studies be
and sent to the wheel shop for two general reasons:
made and detailed layouts prepared before a new shop
either they are worn to the prescribed limits, or they
is started or an existing one modernized. With proper
show a defect that requires removal from service.
machinery and equipment capable of or 3-shift
When a wheel pair (referred to in this section as an axle
operation in a good shop, it is possible to centralize
upon which two wheels are mounted) is removed from a
wheel and axle work, thus securing better work, greater
truck for shipment to the wheel shop, a wheel tag or
production, and appreciable labor economy.
some similar form of marking is used to indicate the
reason for removal. Upon arrival at the wheel shop, a
18-17. Wheel Types
further inspection is made to determine whether the
condition is such that the wheels are to be dismounted
and the journals turned on wheel pairs or the treads
Narrow flange contour multiple-wear
turned on steel wheels. While the original basis for
wrought-steel wheels are in general use under
removal may have been wheel defects, careful
passenger cars and passenger equipment in CONUS.
inspection at the wheel shop frequently develops that
One-wear wrought-steel wheels are also used. All kinds
the axle also is worn beyond limits. The various wheel
and axle defects, together with the AAR symbols which
4-6) may be found under passenger equipment in
are universally used to designate each specific defect,
oversea areas, so personnel of transportation railway
are discussed in paragraphs 43 through 4-8.
shop units should be familiar with them.
If the one-wear wheel does not take either a
Wrought-steel wheels are used for
remount or road gage, it does not require turning even
passenger cars and are made in a wide range of designs
though slightly worn. However, if it takes either the
remount or road gage, it must be turned before it can be
They are classified as multiple-wear and one-wear
used, provided sufficient metal will remain after the
wheels and are marked MW for multiple-wear and 1W
for one-wear on the back of the wheel rim with the year
and the manufacturer's brand. Multiple-wear wheels are
18-19. Wheel Shop Operations
used for driving wheels of electric and diesel-electric
locomotives, and for passenger and freight cars.
A one-wear wheel has a minimum rim
arrive at the wheel shop, either new or after a period of
service, must be rigidly inspected, accurately machined,
thickness of 1 1/4 inches, which does not permit
and properly assembled. They should be restored to
restoration of the flange or tread to the original contour
operation in such condition that they will render their
after being worn to the condemning limit. These wheels
anticipated term of service without causing train delays
can, however, be reclaimed by turning in conformity with
as a result of defects or improper workmanship. After
certain rules prescribed in the AAR Wheel Manual.