TM 5-628/AFR 91-44
Standard P3, "Standard for Creosote-Petroleum Oil
Solution" may be used.
a. The functions of a tie are to:
(3) Switch ties. It is recommended that
(1) Maintain gage.
switch ties be hardwood selected from the list of
(2) Maintain surface.
preferred species given in paragraph 5-lb(1).
(3) Maintain alinement.
c. installation. Ties shall be installed perpendic-
(4) Distribute the load from the rail to the
ular to the rails and properly tamped and spiked.
Ties shall be installed with the top of the tie (or the
The inability of a tie to adequately perform any of
tie plate) in full contact with the base of the rail and
the above functions constitutes a defective tie.
the bottom of the tie near the rail seat in full contact
b. Tie selection and treatment.
(1) Tie selection. New ties selected for use
in the maintenance of Army track shall meet the re-
5-2. Identification of defective ties.
quirements specified in the AREA Manual For
Railway Engineering, chapter 8, part 1 for 6-inch
a. Defective ties. A tie is defective if it is:
grade and 7-inch grade ties. The preferred species
(1) Broken through.
for ties are the following hardwoods: Red Oak,
(2) Split or otherwise impaired to the extent
White Oak, Hickory, Ash, Beech, and Gum. Where
that it will not hold spikes or other rail fasteners.
softwoods are used, the Pine and Fir species are
(3) So deteriorated that the tie plate can
move laterally more than (0.5) inch relative to the
(2) Treatment. Ties shall be pressure treated
in accordance with the most current version of
(4) Cut by the tie plate more than 2 (2.00)
American Wood-Preserver*s Association (AWPA)
Standard C6. As a general recommendation, the
(5) Cut by wheel flanges, dragging
equipment, fire, etc., to a depth of more than 2
solution (60/40) as specified in AWPA Standard P2,
(2.00) inches within 12 inches of the base of the rail,
"Standard for Creosote and Creosote Solutions".
frog, or load-bearing area.
For ties used West of the Mississippi River where
(6) Rotted, hollow, or generally deteriorated
attack of the wood by organisms such as fungi and
to a point where a substantial amount of the material
termites is generally not as severe, a creosote-pe-
is decayed or missing. These defects are shown in
troleum solution (50/50) as specified in AWPA